Automate .NET Core Deployments to Windows Server using Bitbucket Pipelines

source: https://www.synopsys.com/glossary/what-is-cicd.html

Here is the scenario: you have a .NET core application, it is in a Bitbucket repository, you are hosting it in a Windows server using IIS, and you want to set up CI/CD using Bitbucket pipelines. If this is your case, continue reading.

Before you get too excited, make sure the following prerequisites have been met:

  • You have a .NET Core project already
  • Configured SSH on your server
  • Generated SSH keys and copied public key on server
  • Your project is in a Bitbucket repository
  • You have pipelines enabled in your repository settings

To get started, create a bitbucket-pipelines.yml file on the root of your project.

At the top of the file specify what image you want to use. In this case choose the dotnet/core/sdk:3.1 image which allows you to run dotnet commands later on in our steps.

Then use the pipelines keyword and set the first step in your pipeline.

The default keyword sets a default step that executes if the branch name doesn’t match or if there are no specified branches in the file. If you wish to limit a step to certain branches, you can use the branches keyword to specify like shown below.

The step keyword introduces the first step in the pipeline and runs the commands in the list under script, and name is simply a name you give the step. Use caches to cache external dependencies and speed up the build time. You can read more about caches here.

Next, run the dotnet commands to restore, build, and publish your project. The $BITBUCKET_CLONE_DIR is an environment variable that indicates the path where the project is cloned when the pipeline runs. To make sure the published files are in that directory I set the output in the publish command to a directory called “release” in the clone directory ($BITBUCKET_CLONE_DIR/release).

Artifacts are saved files that are created during the step. Artifacts can be passed from one step to another. You will need to use the artifact in the next step to move them to the server. More about artifacts here.

Step 2.

In the second step, the deployment keyword is used so the step runs with config specific to that environment. You can set variables for each deployment in your repository settings. The pipe atlassian/scp-deploy uses scp (Secure Copy Protocol) to move the published files to the server. The pipe takes a few required parameters to SSH into your server.

  • USER is the user on the server
  • SERVER is the IP or URL to your server
  • REMOTE_PATH is the path that you want to copy your files to on the server and must exist prior to running the pipeline
  • LOCAL_PATH is the path that has the files we need to copy over. In this case, simply put the relative path to the artifact we produced in the previous step
  • DEBUG is optional and set to false by default, but I keep it true while working on the pipeline

Documentation for this pipe can be found here.

The SSH Key is saved as a repository setting and added to a default location that the scp pipe automatically checks and uses if it exists. The pipe has an optional SSH_KEY parameter which allows you to use a specific key. If you go this route, you will need to encode your private key to base64 first.

Step 3.

In the final step, a batch script needs to be executed on the server. This is necessary because we need to stop the IIS service before we move the files published by the pipeline to the project directory in your server, and restarts IIS after doing so.

In my case, I needed to run a batch script since the Windows server version did not support running Bash scripts and had to create a custom pipe to be able to do so. If your server supports bash you could use the atlassian/ssh-run pipe (Server must have WSL installed). However, if you are in the same boat as me, you could use the accessefm/bat-script-runner pipe I created or make your own custom one. Documentation for creating a custom pipe can be found here.

That is it! A simple solution to deploy a .NET core application to a server using solely Bitbucket pipelines. Keep in mind this is a basic example, it is possible you will need to beef up your pipelines to work according to your team standard.

Code on! -MAD